Results of SurveyUSA News Poll #24551
 
1How serious a problem do you think unauthorized immigration is for the United States?
1000 AdultsAllGenderAge<50 / 50+RaceParty AffiliationIdeologyEducationIncomeUrbanicityRegion
Credibility Interval: ± 4.2 pct pointsMaleFemale18-3435-4950-6465+18-4950+WhiteBlackHispanicOtherRepublicDemocratIndependConservaModerateLiberalHigh SchSome Col4-year C< $40K$40K - $> $80KUrbanSuburbanRuralNortheasMidwestSouthWest
Serious Problem59%60%57%48%60%65%66%53%66%62%32%59%67%83%41%60%83%59%35%63%55%59%57%64%54%52%60%63%69%56%57%56%
Minor Problem28%27%30%33%31%22%28%32%24%27%41%29%19%14%42%28%14%31%44%23%35%26%27%26%36%31%28%26%21%34%29%30%
Not a Problem8%8%7%13%7%5%2%10%4%7%11%6%8%2%13%6%2%5%19%7%7%9%9%8%3%8%9%5%8%6%7%8%
Not Sure5%5%6%7%3%8%3%5%6%3%16%5%5%2%4%6%1%5%2%6%4%6%7%2%6%9%3%6%2%4%7%6%
Total100%100%100%100%100%100%100%100%100%100%100%100%100%100%100%100%100%100%100%100%100%100%100%100%100%100%100%100%100%100%100%100%
Composition of Adults100%49%51%31%26%27%17%56%44%65%12%15%8%28%35%29%26%38%21%31%38%31%49%31%21%29%46%24%18%20%38%23%
 
2Do you think unauthorized immigrants commit serious crimes like murder and rape at a higher rate than the population as a whole in the US? At a lower rate than the population as a whole? Or at the same rate as the population as a whole?
1000 AdultsAllGenderAge<50 / 50+RaceParty AffiliationIdeologyEducationIncomeUrbanicityRegion
Credibility Interval: ± 4.3 pct pointsMaleFemale18-3435-4950-6465+18-4950+WhiteBlackHispanicOtherRepublicDemocratIndependConservaModerateLiberalHigh SchSome Col4-year C< $40K$40K - $> $80KUrbanSuburbanRuralNortheasMidwestSouthWest
Higher Rate28%30%27%21%27%34%35%23%34%33%19%22%15%53%17%22%54%22%16%31%28%25%27%30%29%24%29%33%30%32%29%23%
Lower Rate21%22%20%28%20%14%22%24%17%19%25%28%17%11%33%17%10%23%35%18%23%21%20%20%25%24%22%14%17%21%18%29%
Same Rate35%31%39%39%35%32%31%37%32%34%26%37%54%25%35%43%26%38%40%31%36%38%32%43%28%33%36%35%37%35%36%30%
Not Sure16%17%15%13%18%20%12%15%17%14%30%13%13%10%16%18%11%17%9%20%13%15%20%7%18%19%13%18%16%13%17%17%
Total100%100%100%100%100%100%100%100%100%100%100%100%100%100%100%100%100%100%100%100%100%100%100%100%100%100%100%100%100%100%100%100%
Composition of Adults100%49%51%31%26%27%17%56%44%65%12%15%8%28%35%29%26%38%21%31%38%31%49%31%21%29%46%24%18%20%38%23%
 
3How closely have you been following news stories about the migrant caravan arriving in Tijuana with the intention of seeking asylum at the US-Mexico border in San Diego? Very closely? Somewhat closely? Not very closely? Or not at all closely?
1000 AdultsAllGenderAge<50 / 50+RaceParty AffiliationIdeologyEducationIncomeUrbanicityRegion
Credibility Interval: ± 4.3 pct pointsMaleFemale18-3435-4950-6465+18-4950+WhiteBlackHispanicOtherRepublicDemocratIndependConservaModerateLiberalHigh SchSome Col4-year C< $40K$40K - $> $80KUrbanSuburbanRuralNortheasMidwestSouthWest
Very25%28%21%16%27%23%38%21%29%25%19%32%16%34%25%20%39%20%26%24%22%28%24%23%29%26%24%23%25%21%25%26%
Somewhat43%43%43%39%40%48%46%40%47%44%42%34%51%42%48%45%42%49%48%36%45%47%39%48%45%36%46%45%47%45%38%45%
Not Very19%18%20%25%19%16%15%22%15%19%19%24%13%17%17%19%12%21%17%23%19%16%20%23%14%23%19%16%19%21%21%15%
Not At All10%8%12%14%11%12%1%12%7%9%18%5%16%5%8%14%6%9%7%13%11%7%13%5%11%12%9%10%8%11%12%10%
Not Sure3%2%3%5%3%1%0%4%1%2%2%5%4%2%2%2%2%1%1%5%3%1%4%2%1%2%2%5%2%2%3%3%
Total100%100%100%100%100%100%100%100%100%100%100%100%100%100%100%100%100%100%100%100%100%100%100%100%100%100%100%100%100%100%100%100%
Composition of Adults100%49%51%31%26%27%17%56%44%65%12%15%8%28%35%29%26%38%21%31%38%31%49%31%21%29%46%24%18%20%38%23%
 
4During the weeks before the caravan arrived, President Trump portrayed the caravan as being like an invasion of criminals, while advocates portrayed the caravan as a group of people trying to assert a lawful right to seek asylum under international treaties. Who do you think was closer to the truth?
1000 AdultsAllGenderAge<50 / 50+RaceParty AffiliationIdeologyEducationIncomeUrbanicityRegion
Credibility Interval: ± 4.3 pct pointsMaleFemale18-3435-4950-6465+18-4950+WhiteBlackHispanicOtherRepublicDemocratIndependConservaModerateLiberalHigh SchSome Col4-year C< $40K$40K - $> $80KUrbanSuburbanRuralNortheasMidwestSouthWest
President Trump29%33%25%26%25%31%38%25%33%36%11%20%18%64%12%20%59%21%11%33%27%27%26%31%34%25%29%34%34%36%26%24%
Advocates33%33%33%33%35%31%34%33%33%31%49%34%27%10%60%26%10%37%66%26%38%34%31%33%38%36%36%23%25%32%32%42%
Neither20%20%21%21%20%19%20%21%19%18%16%23%41%13%13%33%16%26%12%17%18%26%21%23%14%19%19%23%27%20%19%17%
Both6%4%8%7%6%6%6%7%6%7%7%8%1%6%6%7%7%7%7%9%6%4%7%8%3%6%7%6%5%5%9%5%
Not Sure11%9%13%13%15%12%3%14%9%10%18%14%14%7%9%13%8%9%4%15%11%8%16%5%11%15%8%14%9%8%14%12%
Total100%100%100%100%100%100%100%100%100%100%100%100%100%100%100%100%100%100%100%100%100%100%100%100%100%100%100%100%100%100%100%100%
Composition of Adults100%49%51%31%26%27%17%56%44%65%12%15%8%28%35%29%26%38%21%31%38%31%49%31%21%29%46%24%18%20%38%23%
 
5International treaties allow migrants to seek asylum in the US if they have a specific and credible fear that they will come to harm in their home country. Based on what you know, how many of the migrants in the caravan fit that criteria?
1000 AdultsAllGenderAge<50 / 50+RaceParty AffiliationIdeologyEducationIncomeUrbanicityRegion
Credibility Interval: ± 4.3 pct pointsMaleFemale18-3435-4950-6465+18-4950+WhiteBlackHispanicOtherRepublicDemocratIndependConservaModerateLiberalHigh SchSome Col4-year C< $40K$40K - $> $80KUrbanSuburbanRuralNortheasMidwestSouthWest
Almost All24%23%25%27%21%20%30%24%24%21%37%31%18%12%44%15%12%27%47%20%28%24%24%22%28%24%27%20%20%21%26%28%
Some32%34%30%35%36%27%30%35%28%34%26%30%25%32%33%33%32%34%35%33%32%31%35%32%26%37%31%28%30%34%31%34%
Very Few, If Any25%26%25%19%21%33%30%20%32%28%10%18%37%43%11%28%44%23%9%24%23%29%19%32%29%19%25%33%31%30%23%20%
Not Sure19%17%20%19%21%21%10%20%16%16%27%21%20%13%12%24%12%16%9%23%16%17%22%14%16%20%17%19%19%16%21%18%
Total100%100%100%100%100%100%100%100%100%100%100%100%100%100%100%100%100%100%100%100%100%100%100%100%100%100%100%100%100%100%100%100%
Composition of Adults100%49%51%31%26%27%17%56%44%65%12%15%8%28%35%29%26%38%21%31%38%31%49%31%21%29%46%24%18%20%38%23%
 
6How significant a threat do you think the caravan poses to the U.S.?
1000 AdultsAllGenderAge<50 / 50+RaceParty AffiliationIdeologyEducationIncomeUrbanicityRegion
Credibility Interval: ± 4.3 pct pointsMaleFemale18-3435-4950-6465+18-4950+WhiteBlackHispanicOtherRepublicDemocratIndependConservaModerateLiberalHigh SchSome Col4-year C< $40K$40K - $> $80KUrbanSuburbanRuralNortheasMidwestSouthWest
Major Threat32%34%31%24%34%39%36%28%38%34%16%31%48%60%15%30%58%27%16%36%30%32%27%41%32%25%34%39%38%34%30%30%
Minor Threat34%35%32%40%34%27%31%38%28%35%30%37%21%28%35%39%27%42%33%30%34%36%34%32%35%36%34%30%38%37%32%28%
No Threat22%21%22%22%21%21%25%21%22%21%34%19%16%4%39%19%6%22%46%16%24%24%22%21%24%22%24%18%14%18%24%28%
Not Sure12%10%15%14%11%14%8%13%12%10%20%14%15%8%10%11%10%10%5%17%11%9%17%7%9%17%9%13%10%11%14%13%
Total100%100%100%100%100%100%100%100%100%100%100%100%100%100%100%100%100%100%100%100%100%100%100%100%100%100%100%100%100%100%100%100%
Composition of Adults100%49%51%31%26%27%17%56%44%65%12%15%8%28%35%29%26%38%21%31%38%31%49%31%21%29%46%24%18%20%38%23%
 
7President Trump deployed the military to defend the US from the caravan. Do you support or oppose that decision?
1000 AdultsAllGenderAge<50 / 50+RaceParty AffiliationIdeologyEducationIncomeUrbanicityRegion
Credibility Interval: ± 4.3 pct pointsMaleFemale18-3435-4950-6465+18-4950+WhiteBlackHispanicOtherRepublicDemocratIndependConservaModerateLiberalHigh SchSome Col4-year C< $40K$40K - $> $80KUrbanSuburbanRuralNortheasMidwestSouthWest
Support44%46%41%37%36%53%52%37%53%52%15%28%47%79%19%44%74%42%17%48%39%45%40%49%43%38%42%54%53%50%43%32%
Oppose38%38%38%39%42%33%37%40%35%33%54%48%32%11%68%32%14%42%73%28%43%41%37%38%39%39%42%27%34%33%37%46%
Not Sure19%16%22%24%22%14%11%23%13%15%31%24%21%10%12%24%11%17%10%24%18%15%23%13%18%23%16%19%14%17%20%22%
Total100%100%100%100%100%100%100%100%100%100%100%100%100%100%100%100%100%100%100%100%100%100%100%100%100%100%100%100%100%100%100%100%
Composition of Adults100%49%51%31%26%27%17%56%44%65%12%15%8%28%35%29%26%38%21%31%38%31%49%31%21%29%46%24%18%20%38%23%
 
8What should the US do about the caravan members taking shelter in Tijuana?
1000 AdultsAllGenderAge<50 / 50+RaceParty AffiliationIdeologyEducationIncomeUrbanicityRegion
Credibility Interval: ± 4.3 pct pointsMaleFemale18-3435-4950-6465+18-4950+WhiteBlackHispanicOtherRepublicDemocratIndependConservaModerateLiberalHigh SchSome Col4-year C< $40K$40K - $> $80KUrbanSuburbanRuralNortheasMidwestSouthWest
Not Let Any In19%22%16%16%18%19%25%17%22%24%7%13%8%35%10%16%35%12%10%22%18%18%20%19%17%21%18%19%22%22%18%16%
Those Who Qualify For Asylum Following Normal Process37%39%36%37%39%40%31%38%37%37%25%39%53%46%28%45%42%44%29%36%37%39%34%43%37%31%40%41%42%39%34%38%
Those Who Qualify For Asylum With Expedited Processing29%26%32%27%28%28%38%27%32%28%41%30%17%14%45%25%16%35%44%25%32%30%27%30%33%30%32%22%24%27%32%30%
Let In Everyone4%4%5%7%3%2%4%5%3%3%8%4%5%1%8%3%1%3%10%4%2%7%5%3%4%5%4%4%5%3%4%5%
Not Sure10%9%11%14%12%11%2%13%7%7%18%14%17%4%8%11%6%7%7%14%10%7%14%5%9%13%7%13%6%9%12%11%
Total100%100%100%100%100%100%100%100%100%100%100%100%100%100%100%100%100%100%100%100%100%100%100%100%100%100%100%100%100%100%100%100%
Composition of Adults100%49%51%31%26%27%17%56%44%65%12%15%8%28%35%29%26%38%21%31%38%31%49%31%21%29%46%24%18%20%38%23%
 
9Do you support or oppose building a wall along the Mexican border?
1000 AdultsAllGenderAge<50 / 50+RaceParty AffiliationIdeologyEducationIncomeUrbanicityRegion
Credibility Interval: ± 4.3 pct pointsMaleFemale18-3435-4950-6465+18-4950+WhiteBlackHispanicOtherRepublicDemocratIndependConservaModerateLiberalHigh SchSome Col4-year C< $40K$40K - $> $80KUrbanSuburbanRuralNortheasMidwestSouthWest
Support40%43%37%32%38%45%48%35%46%49%11%32%20%78%15%37%73%35%14%44%40%35%39%41%40%38%40%42%42%43%39%36%
Oppose45%44%46%53%48%36%41%51%38%39%67%60%39%13%76%42%18%45%81%41%48%46%46%45%43%50%48%34%37%43%48%50%
Not Sure15%13%17%15%14%19%11%14%16%12%22%7%41%9%8%21%9%20%6%15%12%19%14%15%17%12%12%24%21%15%13%14%
Total100%100%100%100%100%100%100%100%100%100%100%100%100%100%100%100%100%100%100%100%100%100%100%100%100%100%100%100%100%100%100%100%
Composition of Adults100%49%51%31%26%27%17%56%44%65%12%15%8%28%35%29%26%38%21%31%38%31%49%31%21%29%46%24%18%20%38%23%
 
10Did the arrival of the caravan in Tijuana make you more or less likely to support building a border wall? Or did it make no difference either way??
1000 AdultsAllGenderAge<50 / 50+RaceParty AffiliationIdeologyEducationIncomeUrbanicityRegion
Credibility Interval: ± 4.3 pct pointsMaleFemale18-3435-4950-6465+18-4950+WhiteBlackHispanicOtherRepublicDemocratIndependConservaModerateLiberalHigh SchSome Col4-year C< $40K$40K - $> $80KUrbanSuburbanRuralNortheasMidwestSouthWest
More Likely To Support31%35%27%27%26%36%38%27%37%38%12%27%16%58%15%29%57%28%10%36%28%30%29%31%36%29%30%35%35%35%32%24%
Less Likely To Support14%15%14%23%17%7%5%20%6%10%23%21%19%9%23%11%10%15%25%13%13%17%14%17%11%23%13%7%15%17%13%14%
No Impact Either Way45%42%47%39%48%41%55%43%46%45%50%43%33%28%58%45%27%47%62%41%49%43%46%43%43%36%51%43%32%42%46%54%
Not Sure10%8%12%11%9%16%1%10%10%7%15%9%32%5%4%15%6%10%3%10%10%11%11%9%9%12%6%16%18%6%9%8%
Total100%100%100%100%100%100%100%100%100%100%100%100%100%100%100%100%100%100%100%100%100%100%100%100%100%100%100%100%100%100%100%100%
Composition of Adults100%49%51%31%26%27%17%56%44%65%12%15%8%28%35%29%26%38%21%31%38%31%49%31%21%29%46%24%18%20%38%23%
 
11How concerned are you about the arrival of the caravan in terms of its impact on tourism, traffic, and cross-border commerce? Very concerned? Somewhat concerned? Not very concerned? Or not at all concerned?
1000 AdultsAllGenderAge<50 / 50+RaceParty AffiliationIdeologyEducationIncomeUrbanicityRegion
Credibility Interval: ± 4.3 pct pointsMaleFemale18-3435-4950-6465+18-4950+WhiteBlackHispanicOtherRepublicDemocratIndependConservaModerateLiberalHigh SchSome Col4-year C< $40K$40K - $> $80KUrbanSuburbanRuralNortheasMidwestSouthWest
Very26%24%28%17%25%35%31%20%33%26%14%27%41%44%13%26%45%25%12%28%24%26%24%32%22%21%25%34%32%25%26%23%
Somewhat27%29%25%27%29%18%36%28%25%30%18%23%21%34%23%28%33%30%18%28%24%29%26%28%28%27%29%23%28%31%25%25%
Not Very22%26%19%27%20%24%15%24%20%21%31%25%11%13%31%21%12%26%32%19%26%21%22%22%23%23%23%20%15%21%28%20%
Not At All15%14%16%17%15%13%15%16%14%15%15%15%15%3%27%13%5%12%34%12%16%17%16%11%18%15%17%11%14%13%11%24%
Not Sure10%7%12%13%11%10%3%12%7%8%21%10%11%6%6%12%6%8%4%13%10%7%12%7%9%15%6%12%11%10%11%7%
Total100%100%100%100%100%100%100%100%100%100%100%100%100%100%100%100%100%100%100%100%100%100%100%100%100%100%100%100%100%100%100%100%
Composition of Adults100%49%51%31%26%27%17%56%44%65%12%15%8%28%35%29%26%38%21%31%38%31%49%31%21%29%46%24%18%20%38%23%
 
12Has the caravan made you more or less sympathetic to the plight of migrants? Or did it make no difference either way??
1000 AdultsAllGenderAge<50 / 50+RaceParty AffiliationIdeologyEducationIncomeUrbanicityRegion
Credibility Interval: ± 4.3 pct pointsMaleFemale18-3435-4950-6465+18-4950+WhiteBlackHispanicOtherRepublicDemocratIndependConservaModerateLiberalHigh SchSome Col4-year C< $40K$40K - $> $80KUrbanSuburbanRuralNortheasMidwestSouthWest
More Sympathetic26%24%29%28%25%22%31%27%26%23%44%34%16%13%45%18%14%26%50%24%28%26%27%25%28%30%27%21%27%19%28%29%
Less Sympathetic24%28%21%20%23%23%34%21%27%28%11%18%22%42%14%23%39%25%13%22%21%30%21%28%24%20%25%27%18%33%27%17%
Made No Difference40%40%40%42%39%45%33%40%40%42%27%40%49%41%35%48%40%41%34%43%40%37%39%43%39%38%41%42%45%40%35%45%
Not Sure9%8%10%10%12%10%1%11%7%7%18%9%13%4%6%11%7%8%3%10%10%8%13%5%8%12%7%10%9%8%10%10%
Total100%100%100%100%100%100%100%100%100%100%100%100%100%100%100%100%100%100%100%100%100%100%100%100%100%100%100%100%100%100%100%100%
Composition of Adults100%49%51%31%26%27%17%56%44%65%12%15%8%28%35%29%26%38%21%31%38%31%49%31%21%29%46%24%18%20%38%23%
 
13Is the caravan something you have discussed or debated with friends?
1000 AdultsAllGenderAge<50 / 50+RaceParty AffiliationIdeologyEducationIncomeUrbanicityRegion
Credibility Interval: ± 4.3 pct pointsMaleFemale18-3435-4950-6465+18-4950+WhiteBlackHispanicOtherRepublicDemocratIndependConservaModerateLiberalHigh SchSome Col4-year C< $40K$40K - $> $80KUrbanSuburbanRuralNortheasMidwestSouthWest
Yes45%48%43%33%44%52%59%38%55%47%39%40%48%51%46%45%58%51%42%40%44%53%40%48%54%38%48%50%43%43%46%49%
No49%47%51%57%49%45%41%54%43%48%58%49%42%43%49%51%39%45%56%52%52%43%53%47%43%56%47%44%53%52%50%43%
Not Sure6%5%6%10%7%3%0%9%2%4%3%11%10%6%4%4%3%5%3%8%5%5%7%5%3%6%5%6%4%6%5%8%
Total100%100%100%100%100%100%100%100%100%100%100%100%100%100%100%100%100%100%100%100%100%100%100%100%100%100%100%100%100%100%100%100%
Composition of Adults100%49%51%31%26%27%17%56%44%65%12%15%8%28%35%29%26%38%21%31%38%31%49%31%21%29%46%24%18%20%38%23%
 
14Have you given food, money or goods to help with the caravan?
1000 AdultsAllGenderAge<50 / 50+RaceParty AffiliationIdeologyEducationIncomeUrbanicityRegion
Credibility Interval: ± 2.6 pct pointsMaleFemale18-3435-4950-6465+18-4950+WhiteBlackHispanicOtherRepublicDemocratIndependConservaModerateLiberalHigh SchSome Col4-year C< $40K$40K - $> $80KUrbanSuburbanRuralNortheasMidwestSouthWest
Yes7%9%6%10%7%6%4%8%5%5%19%9%4%4%12%5%3%10%8%6%9%5%7%5%11%8%6%8%7%6%8%7%
No89%87%91%83%89%93%96%85%94%93%77%83%89%93%85%92%95%88%88%87%88%93%88%93%87%88%91%87%90%90%89%88%
Not Sure4%4%3%7%5%0%1%6%1%2%4%8%7%3%2%3%2%2%3%6%3%2%5%2%2%4%3%4%3%4%3%5%
Total100%100%100%100%100%100%100%100%100%100%100%100%100%100%100%100%100%100%100%100%100%100%100%100%100%100%100%100%100%100%100%100%
Composition of Adults100%49%51%31%26%27%17%56%44%65%12%15%8%28%35%29%26%38%21%31%38%31%49%31%21%29%46%24%18%20%38%23%
 
15Should the U.S. send aid to Mexico to help the migrants?
1000 AdultsAllGenderAge<50 / 50+RaceParty AffiliationIdeologyEducationIncomeUrbanicityRegion
Credibility Interval: ± 4.3 pct pointsMaleFemale18-3435-4950-6465+18-4950+WhiteBlackHispanicOtherRepublicDemocratIndependConservaModerateLiberalHigh SchSome Col4-year C< $40K$40K - $> $80KUrbanSuburbanRuralNortheasMidwestSouthWest
Yes33%36%30%46%36%22%20%42%21%28%50%40%33%19%48%30%21%31%52%29%40%28%34%32%31%40%31%28%26%32%33%38%
No43%45%40%36%38%48%54%37%50%51%18%35%24%66%27%44%59%41%31%46%37%46%39%44%49%35%45%48%45%49%40%38%
Not Sure25%20%29%18%25%31%26%21%29%21%31%24%43%15%24%27%20%28%17%25%23%26%27%24%20%25%24%25%29%18%27%24%
Total100%100%100%100%100%100%100%100%100%100%100%100%100%100%100%100%100%100%100%100%100%100%100%100%100%100%100%100%100%100%100%100%
Composition of Adults100%49%51%31%26%27%17%56%44%65%12%15%8%28%35%29%26%38%21%31%38%31%49%31%21%29%46%24%18%20%38%23%
 
16While they wait for US action, should Mexico shelter the migrants or expel them to their home countries?
1000 AdultsAllGenderAge<50 / 50+RaceParty AffiliationIdeologyEducationIncomeUrbanicityRegion
Credibility Interval: ± 4.3 pct pointsMaleFemale18-3435-4950-6465+18-4950+WhiteBlackHispanicOtherRepublicDemocratIndependConservaModerateLiberalHigh SchSome Col4-year C< $40K$40K - $> $80KUrbanSuburbanRuralNortheasMidwestSouthWest
Shelter The Migrants43%42%43%49%45%33%43%47%37%38%60%55%32%21%66%40%24%47%67%39%46%42%44%44%39%49%43%35%36%42%44%48%
Expel Them To Home Countries34%36%31%25%32%41%40%28%40%37%12%27%48%58%17%35%53%30%20%37%31%34%30%38%35%27%33%43%41%38%30%30%
Not Sure24%21%26%26%23%26%17%25%23%25%28%18%19%21%18%25%23%23%13%24%23%24%26%18%26%24%24%22%23%20%27%22%
Total100%100%100%100%100%100%100%100%100%100%100%100%100%100%100%100%100%100%100%100%100%100%100%100%100%100%100%100%100%100%100%100%
Composition of Adults100%49%51%31%26%27%17%56%44%65%12%15%8%28%35%29%26%38%21%31%38%31%49%31%21%29%46%24%18%20%38%23%